Slums Problems 2022 – In the tide of change that has engulfed the developing countries by the beginning of the 21st century, one of the most dramatic and fundamental trends is urbanization. The sprouting of slums is the urban areas is the direct outcome of greater economic opportunities available in the cities and towns.as the world continues to urbanise and globalise at the most rapid pace in modern history. The worldwide population of slum dwellers also continues to develop tremendously.
The democracy of India provides free mobility to its citizens. Part of the freedom of the democratic population of India is the apparent liberty to pursue their dreams anywhere in the country. The great slums of India are predominantly created when large numbers of individuals or families move to urban centres to make their dreams, usually in search of better economic prospectus. These urban centres are not good in a manner that can accommodate such an influx of people. In lieu of this, the incoming migrants find accommodation in un-organised dwellings.
The slums have become the indispensable and dark side of our country, which we can’t boast of causes. The unprecedented growth of the urban population of India presents a major challenge for sustainable economic growth. The unplanned migration of unskilled workers from rural localities for the search of better livelihood leads to the development of urban poverty and slum population.
Meaning and definition of Slums Problems:
it is generally true that in a country growing under capitalist production relations with the weak regulatory mechanism, gains of development are equally shared particularly are not in favour of the poor and vulnerable sections of society. Under such conditions, the poor are the habitats of the backward areas and the rich or elite classes live in posh areas.
Thus, a major portion of labour class lives in those areas where basic necessities of life are lacking. These areas, many times are converted into congested colonies known as the slum area. Defining slum is a very difficult and sensitive issue in India because different states and their laws have adopted different definitions of the word.
According to the Oxford Dictionary
Slum means, “a squalid and overcrowded urban street or district, inhabited by people of a low class or by the very poor, a number of these streets or districts forming a thickly populated neighbourhood or district where the houses and the conditions of life are of squalid and wretched character.”
As per Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary, the Slum means a crowded and poor area of a town where the buildings are in a very bad condition.”
Causes of the Growth of Slums Problems:
Migration: people used to live in villages, by the passing of time and demand for change in lifestyle people were forced to migrate to urban places. Migration is not all about rural to urban, many a time its urban to urban as well. So the output rises the slums because some rural migrants may not find jobs immediately because of their lack of skills and increasingly competitive job markets., which leads to their financial shortage. Many rural-urban migrant workers cannot afford housing in cities and eventually settle down in only attracts slums.
Rural to Urban migration is considered to be the most important component of urbanisation. It is a mechanism by which all the world’s great urbanisation trends have been accomplished. Urban poverty which is a cruel reality is considered to be the number one urban problem and the most demanding urban challenge.
The deficiency is not a state of being, it is the effect of dynamic processes. Poverty is not only a personal phenomenon, but it is also social status. Poverty is a situation that gives rise to a feeling a discrepancy between what one has and what one” should have”. It is only in the second half of the 20th century that poverty and the poor have come to be matters of our concern and obligation. Improving the life of slum dwellers is a compelling mission.
Removal and replacement of slum usually create a conflict of interest, and politics prevented efforts to remove, relocate or upgrade the slums into housing projects that are better than slums. Many local and national level politicians for their political interest, subverted efforts to remove, reduce or upgrade slum into better housing options for the poor.
Poor Economic Conditions:
The sick infrastructure and social forces the economically poor people to adjust in a situation beyond his or her control. Poor families are unable to afford transportation cost and lack of transportation forces the worker to settle near to their workplace.
Political and Social Exclusion:
Governments often ignore slum dwellers: they are excluded from voting, city development plans, and full protection under the law.
Many slum dwellers in developing countries live in danger of a rise in sea level, storms, earthquakes and other disasters affect city slums more seriously than others areas, as substandard houses crumble or poor drainage system promote prolonged flooding.
Illiteracy – Slums Problems
Slums Problems have become inevitable by-products of the process of urbanisation. They grow over years defying all attempts of urbanisation. Any attempt at slum clearance give rise, ironically, to further growth of slums. All big cities of the world have slums. Slums where it was discovered that lack of education binds a slum-dweller to the horrifying conditions of slum-life.
Colonialism and Segregation:
In today’s world, some of the slums are the product of urbanization brought by colonization. During the 19th century, European arrived in Kenya and created an urban centre to fulfil their financial interest. Similarly, many slums were created on the basis of segregation by the colour, Logos, Nigeria is the example of segregation.
Week Financial Position – Slums Problems
Around one in seven of the world’s population live in an informal settlement in urban areas. City economies would collapse without their labour and the goods and services from informal enterprises-yet city governments often ignore them or see them only as a problem. In the absence of support from local governments aid agencies or development banks, they have had to manage by themselves.